There are currently no university offering pharmacy courses in all over Somalia. It is the university of health sciences, Bosaso that is pioneering the establishment of this program. A major challenge in health care delivery in this post-conflict situation is the acute shortage of pharmacy personnel to contribute to the delivery of high quality pharmaceutical services. University of health sciences shall train Pharmacy Technician at Diploma level to promote pharmaceutical care at primary and secondary care level.
Emerging from more than twenty years of armed conflict, the populations in Somalia suffer from a wide range of conflict-related health problems, tropical diseases, infectious and communicable diseases , tuberculosis and malaria. Neuropsychiatric conditions are also prevalent in the region. The impact of these health and post-conflict situations is adverse consequences for social stability, security and social development, as a sick society would not effectively be self-reliant, self-sufficient and productive.
The acute shortage of pharmaceutical personnel in Somalia is compounded by the lack of pharmacists and pharmacy thus leaving the management of medicines and the drug supply chain to unqualified proprietors of drug shops in the rural and urban setting. The implications of this scenario are grim if the factor of the control and prevention disease epidemic is considered. Poor medication compliance, inadequate impact of knowledge of disease transmission on behavior change necessary for the control of the epidemic require urgent action to scale up the training of pharmacy personnel to handle the management of medicines. Accordingly the university of health sciences proposes pharmacy training program that will produce pharmacists with skills to conduct a variety of services in pharmaceutical use and supply in Somalia. It is proposed that the university of health sciences shall train graduates at diploma level ( pharmacy technician). It is expected that pharmacist will be deployed at the national, regional and district hospital as well as on private pharmacy outlets and remote, far and hard to reach areas and shall provide day-to-day dispensing of medicines, provide counseling and guidance and education to patients and their care providers in their rational use of drugs.
The development and implementation of the pharmacy programs at the University of health sciences are governed by the post-conflict situation of the region, the university‘s mission of community transformation, and the emphasis of the university to provide community-based human-centered educational programs that contribute to social development, industrialization and productivity. The university shall use the pharmacy programs to provide outreach community services during student attachments at rural health facilities thus contributing to the manpower needs of rural communities.
The implementation of the pharmacy program shall include internship periods during which students shall be attached to rural or district health facilities to gain practical experience and provide much needed pharmaceutical service to communities during their attachment. Internship tools and logbooks shall be used to guide student supervision and mentorship by department staffs and health facility supervisors. Internship/attachment periods shall comprise short periods at a time during each academic year, and shall serve the purpose of giving practical perspectives of theoretical knowledge to actual work situation, and shall feed into subsequent classroom teaching following each internship period.
University of health sciences is one of the relatively few universities in Somalia that offers competence based education. Despite of the successful effort to train nurses it has been noted with deep concern, that most health units in this region lack a well-functioning set-up for good pharmaceutical management to facilitate rational drug use. Therefore a multidisciplinary care approach to provision of health care services needs to be established in order to improve on the existing services. Following this core idea, the proposal will outline the rationale, the strategic objectives, the mandate and the function of the Pharmacy Program.
3.0 AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PROGRAM
In particular, the aim of the Pharmacy Program is to provide pharmaceutical services to patients to ensure that the medicines provided for each individual are safe, effective, economic, rational and, wherever possible, evidence-based.
The key strategic objective is to strengthen health systems through an integrated teaching and research program in pharmaceutical management in Somalia. This strategic objective will be achieved through the establishment of a Pharmacy Program, which combines academic education and interdisciplinary research in pharmaceutical management.
To provide academic education in pharmacy for students and professionals to enhance the delivery of patient-centered care and contribute to an overall strengthening of health systems.
As in many other regions in Africa, human resource shortages, erratic drug supplies, and high workload are also common phenomena in Somalia. This is particularly salient in post-conflict settings, where public health systems and the population face very complex and much more difficult challenges in providing adequate access to medicines and health services.
In this sense the program‘s vision is to institutionalise standard care and treatment and continuously develop methods to improve pharmaceutical management in post-conflict settings.
3.1 Specific objectives
The service will also attempt to identify, solve and prevent actual and potential medication related problems in order to improve the overall care of patients. Research and teaching at the Pharmacy Program will focus on pharmaceutical science in post-conflict settings in the following key areas:
– Rational drug use
– Community drug use projects
– Integration of traditional healers into the health system through training and develop standards for traditional healing practices.
– Development of a clinical pharmacy unit.
– Innovative training and research projects in non-communicable diseases
Academic education of students and also professionals will be the mandate of the Pharmacy Program and shall be based on the following key areas:
– Drug use evaluation;
– Drug use information
– Adverse drug reaction monitoring
– Medical rounds participation
– Administered drug histories
– Providing pharmaceutical care
– Adverse drug reaction
– Medication error management and intervention
– Documentation of impact
– Medication use policy
– Rounding with the health care team
– Medication history review
– Education of students
– Implements and evaluates drug therapy protocols or pathways
– Clinical research
Diploma in Pharmacy personnel responsibilities are to monitor, evaluate and dispense Pharmaceutical products as well as provide quality pharmaceutical care to clients.
COMPETENCIES OF THE DIPLOMA IN PHARMACY GRADUATE:
The ability to provide patient-centered care by meeting the criteria of good science, professional skills, attitudes, behaviours, values, and evidence-based practice will be the guiding principle.
- Conceptual Competence:
The graduate of this programme must demonstrate evidence-based knowledge of the following theoretical foundations of the profession and apply these to individual practice settings.
- Basic anatomy/ physiology of humans
- Basic Microbiology, Parasitology, and Patho-physiology
- Diagnostic methods and decision making
- Principles of pharmacology and toxicology for Humans
- Pharmaco-economics/ health outcomes
- Relationship between chemical structure and biological activity
- Delivery of drugs from various dosage forms
- Herbal and other Complementary therapies
- Behavioral modification approaches for promoting treatment adherence and disease prevention.
- Scientific Comprehension:
The graduate pharmacist must demonstrate comprehension of major scientific discoveries and use of the scientific method to make these discoveries.
- Basic principles of drug design and the chemical and biochemical mechanisms of drug action.
- Basic principles that affect drug release from dosage forms, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and the impact of those properties on clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics.
- Fundamental principles involved in maintaining the microbiological purity of compounded dosage forms.
- Basic principles of study design.
- Patient care competence:
The student must be able to meld theory and abilities in the practice setting to enhance positive patient outcomes. They should assure safe and effective pharmacotherapy and optimize therapeutic outcomes.
- Obtain, interpret and evaluate patient information to determine the presence of a disease or medical condition, assess the need for treatment and/or referral, and identify patient-specific factors that affect health, pharmacotherapy, and/or disease management.
Identify and define the terminology, signs, and symptoms associated with diseases and medical conditions.
Identify and evaluate patient factors, genetic factors, biosocial factors, and concurrent drug therapy that are relevant to the maintenance of wellness and the prevention or treatment of a disease or medical condition.
- Identify, evaluate, and communicate to the patient or health-care provider, the appropriateness of the patient’s specific pharmaco-therapeutic agents, dosing regimens, dosage forms, routes of administration, and delivery systems.
Identify specific uses and indications for drug products.
Identify the known or postulated sites and mechanisms of action of pharmaco-therapeutic agents.
- The graduate should be able to Select, dispense and administer medications in a manner that promotes safe and effective use.
Identify drug products by their generic, brand, and/or common names.
Determine whether a particular drug dosage strength or dosage form is commercially available, and whether it is available on a nonprescription basis.
Identify commercially available drug products by their characteristic physical attributes.
- Manage the drug regimen by monitoring and assessing the patient and/or patient information, collaborating with other health care professionals, and providing patient education.